BLOG

RFQ vs. RFP: What Is the Difference?

When a company engages in business with other corporations on a business to business (B2B) basis, they will have to navigate tricky clientele attainment processes. With thousands of businesses to choose from, it can be difficult to find the best price for goods and services without putting in hours of research. Companies engage in large-scale B2B operations through the distribution of Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and Request for Quotes (RFQs).

These documents allow companies to send out requests to potential contractors and vendors for certain goods and services. In turn, these vendors will send quotes and project proposals to the company for approval and, hopefully, hiring. Usually, the procurement department of a company will distribute these documents.

Though they are similar documents, different situations can lead to choosing RFQ vs. RFP use by a company. A key factor in successful corporate sales is knowing when to appropriately use one over the other. Luckily, there are a few key differences between an RFQ and an RFP that can help corporate professionals navigate these documents.

 

Request for Quote

A Request for Quote, or RFQ, is a document that companies use to gather information about goods from the potential vendor. Before the procurement of these goods, this document explains that the company wishes to purchase a certain type and amount of goods from a vendor. The RFQ will detail the specifications and quantities of those goods.

The company will send the RFQ to specific companies they are interested in working with. In response, potential vendors will send quotes and price estimates to the company who put the RFQ out. From these responses, the company can choose which vendor can provide the best products at the best prices. Usually, a company uses an RFQ if they need to make a large-scale purchase.

For example, imagine that an office is in the market to purchase a large quantity of paper for an upcoming conference. They need to purchase 2,500 reams and are trying to find the best price for their project. The office will send an RFQ to various paper suppliers in their area to find the best quote for the amount they need.

RFQ may also stand for “Request for Qualifications.” Companies use this document to solicit vendor and contractor qualifications to narrow down choices for a project bid.

 

Request for Proposal

A Request for Proposal, or RFP, is a document that companies use to gather information about services from a potential supplier or contractor. These documents are more complicated than RFQs since they ask for more than just a price.

Since the document is a request for services, not products, the information contained in the RFP is more detailed than information in an RFQ. The RFP will detail the goals and nature of the project that the company needs completed. In addition, it will detail the number of pages and illustrations that the proposal should contain, what laws the project is subject to, and what qualifications the contractors should have. The company may request the proposal contain other information as well, depending on the project.

In return, the potential contractor will submit a proposal detailing:

  • What the contractor needs for project completion
  • The estimated costs of labor
  • The estimated costs of management and other fees
  • The total project cost

The company will use this proposal to decide whether to hire that contractor. Companies who lack the expertise to detail the scope of the project they want to complete use RFPs to solicit assistance from more knowledgeable contractors.

For example, imagine that a corporation is looking to open a new store location in a different state. They need to find a contractor to renovate their property to match the design of their other locations. They will send an RFP to various contractors in the area detailing the nature and goals of the project, the different building codes that the contractor will have

to adhere to, the company’s style guide, and the licensing requirements the company is seeking. Contractors will return proposals to this company and the company will select the best proposal for hire.

 

What About RFT and RFI?

Other documents that companies use to solicit information from potential suppliers are RFIs and RFTs. RFI stands for Request for Information. Companies use RFIs to gather information on what steps to take next in a contract negotiation. Usually, RFIs are the last stage in the RFQ or RFP process.

RFT stands for Request for Tender. Companies use RFTs to solicit offers from potential suppliers for specific goods and services detailed in the request document. These documents help companies make informed decisions based on pre-identified criteria before hiring or purchasing goods and services.

 

If your company is looking for effective corporate sales training, look no further than Shapiro Negotiations. Our comprehensive workshops for sales professionals will equip your team with the tools, habits, and knowledge necessary for corporate success. Contact Shapiro Negotiations today to learn more about the program and to schedule a free consultation.

What Is ZOPA Negotiation?

A key element to mastering the art of negotiation is knowing the value of a deal and the limits of your interests. Going into an agreement, you should know how much you’re willing to sell a product for and the optimal terms that will benefit you or your company the most.

Negotiation science has developed several terms that define key concepts in determining the worth of the agreement and the ability of a negotiator to walk away from the table satisfied. One of these tools is known as the zone of possible agreement, or ZOPA. These negotiations are critical to the practice of negotiation, because they express the financial range in which the terms of an agreement can be reached.

 

The Definition of ZOPA Negotiation

ZOPA negotiation is concerned with the range in which deals can be made so both negotiating parties can leave the agreement satisfied. ZOPA is also referred to as the “bargaining range.”

For example, imagine you are selling your used car. You purchased your car for $25,000. You hope to sell your car for $18,000 but will go as low as $15,000. A buyer contacts you and explains that they have a budget of $17,000 to purchase a new car. The ZOPA would be between $15,000 and $17,000, as this range is above the seller’s lowest selling price and below the buyer’s highest purchasing price. Both parties will leave the deal satisfied if the car is sold within this range.

 

ZOPA Versus BATNA and Reservation Price

ZOPA can be easily confused with two other terms that describe the possible outcomes of a negotiation: BATNA and reservation price.

A reservation price is the lowest possible price a negotiator would feel comfortable selling goods and services for. It can also be the highest possible price a buyer would feel comfortable paying for a product or service. The reservation price is also known as the “walk away” point and is always expressed by a number. In the same example, if you are selling your car for $18,000 and you are willing to sell it for as low as $15,000, your reservation price would be $15,000. It is unlikely that you will sell your car to a buyer below that amount.

BATNA stands for the “best alternative to a negotiated agreement.” Unlike the reservation price, it is not expressed as a number but rather a scenario in which you settle for a “plan B.” Again, imagine that you are selling your car for $18,000, but will go as low as $15,000. Your younger sister has recently gotten her driver’s license and your parents are looking for a cheap used car to give her for her birthday.

Your parents tell you if you are unable to find a buyer, they could give you $10,000 for your car – lower than your reservation price and much lower than your selling price. If you are unable to find a buyer, your parents become your BATNA.

ZOPA is a different concept entirely. It explains the financial range at which an agreement can be met, and both parties can leave happy, neither a worst-case scenario nor absolute lowest selling point. ZOPA can work in tandem with these concepts, however. The reservation point can be the low or high end of the ZOPA range and can be used when determining if a BATNA is the best option to pursue.

 

Why Are ZOPA Negotiations Important?

ZOPA negotiations are not always as simple as the used car example. When entering a business negotiation, the reservation price of the opposite party is not always explicitly stated or shared beforehand.

A negotiator should always enter a deal knowing their own reservation price and the BATNA. That way, when a negotiator learns the reservation price of the opposite party, they can quickly calculate the ZOPA. From there, the negotiator can begin to sketch out the preliminary terms of the agreement and use collaborative techniques to close a deal.

However, it is possible that no ZOPA is present. For example, a negotiator can enter an agreement with a reservation price for selling their product is $15,000. During the negotiation, the negotiator can discover that the reservation price at which the opposite party would feel comfortable purchasing the product is only $10,000.

From there, the negotiator can try to negotiate with the opposite party to raise the price limit to $15,000. The opposite party will attempt to persuade the negotiator to drop the price to $10,000. Both parties are attempting to create a ZOPA, so they can reach a satisfactory negotiation.

ZOPA, BATNA, and reservation prices are all key concepts to mastering the art of negotiation. To hone these skills, a novice negotiator must familiarize him or herself with the terminology and best practices necessary to effectively close major deals.

 

To learn more about this practice, contact Shapiro Negotiations today to enroll in our negotiations training program.